By Dr.-Ing. Thomas Flik, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans Liebig (auth.)
In the previous couple of years, plenty of books on microprocessors have seemed out there. so much of them originated within the context of the 4-bit and the 8-bit microprocessors and their relatively uncomplicated constitution. even though, the techno-logical improvement from 8-bit to 16-bit microprossors resulted in processor parts with a considerably extra advanced constitution and with an accelerated performance and in addition to a rise within the procedure architecture's complexity. This books takes this development into consideration. It examines 16-bit micro-processor platforms and descrihes their constitution, their habit and their programming. the foundations of laptop or ganization are taken care of on the part point. this is often performed through an in depth exam of the attribute functionali ty of microprocessors. moreover the interactions among and software program, which are standard of microprocessor know-how, are brought. Interfacing innovations are one of many focal issues of those issues. This puplication is geared up as a textbook and is meant as a self-teaching path on 16-bit microprocessors for college students of machine technological know-how and communications, layout engineers and clients in a large choice of technical and medical fields. uncomplicated wisdom of boolean algebra is believed. the alternative of fabric is predicated at the 16-bit microprocessors which are at the moment in the marketplace; nevertheless, the presentation isn't absolute to somebody of those microprocessors.
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Additional resources for 16-Bit-Microprocessor Systems: Structure, Behavior, and Programming
5. Symbol table for the pulse generator program symbol numer'ical address binar'Y decimal hexadec. LABELl LABEL2 TIMEC ZERO ONE 0000000000001000 0000000000001010 0000000000010111 0000000000011000 0000000000011001 8 10 0008 23 24 25 0017 0018 0019 EAREG 1000000000000000 32768 8000 OOOA 23 address / "binary dec. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001 / machine code "-hexadec.
This means that a memory address, written by the processor to the address bus, is always a byte address. e. a memory cell contains 16 bits. The access to the memory occurs at byte or word boundaries. The processor defines the word/byte distinction by means of a control signal that is examined by the memory unit for the byte and word selection. 1 Programming Model The structure and functionality of processor registers, that can be directly addressed by the program, are referred to as "programming model".
1f MSB Half byte LSB , 1 4 I - Byte 1 1_ 0 I dQiI I 7 8 I 16 Word upptr ~iO~I I I Double word 32 Byte string nx8 0 I I 8 7 15 I , _Ilyl. I I I I I I : I I l_byIo I I I I I . I I 0 ~ I::;q:::::::: ::1 11 11 L:: ::::l 15 Word string n x 16 Fig. 4. 1. Byte and word memory addressing w~ AO o Memory selection o 1 o Address error trap ,1 37 Memory addressing Data format ~ 2 4 Byte RO Rl R2 Word Rl RO~ R2 3 5 E :1 i: Register file addressing Double word RO I- - R2 - - Fig. 5. Byte, word and double word allocation in working memory and register file with indication of memory and register addresses possible when the word boundaries are even.
16-Bit-Microprocessor Systems: Structure, Behavior, and Programming by Dr.-Ing. Thomas Flik, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans Liebig (auth.)