By Richard E. Payne
Christian groups flourished in the course of overdue antiquity in a Zoroastrian political procedure, often called the Iranian Empire, that built-in culturally and geographically disparate territories from Arabia to Afghanistan into its associations and networks. while earlier experiences have appeared Christians as marginal, insular, and sometimes persecuted individuals during this empire, Richard Payne demonstrates their integration into elite networks, adoption of Iranian political practices and imaginaries, and participation in imperial associations. the increase of Christianity in Iran relied on the Zoroastrian idea and perform of hierarchical, differentiated inclusion, in keeping with which Christians, Jews, and others occupied valid areas in Iranian political tradition in positions subordinate to the imperial faith. Christians, for his or her half, situated themselves in a political tradition no longer in their personal making, with recourse to their very own ideological and institutional assets, starting from the writing of saints’ lives to the judicial arbitration of bishops. In putting the social historical past of East Syrian Christians on the heart of the Iranian imperial tale, A kingdom of combination is helping clarify the persistence of a culturally various empire throughout 4 centuries.
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(a) religious weather of the period
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Secondary or oblique Sources
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Marcion's Ascetic Morality
Marcion and Scripture
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Extra resources for A State of Mixture: Christians, Zoroastrians, and Iranian Political Culture in Late Antiquity (Transformation of the Classical Heritage, Volume 56)
Harvard University Press, 2009). 22 See R. ), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology, 241–61; T. Kelly, Stars, Life, and Intelligence: Being a Darwinian and a Believer (Adelaide: ATF Press, 2009). 23 Pruss and Gale, ‘Cosmological and Design Arguments’, 130, 135. 24 See Menssen and Sullivan, The Agnostic Enquirer, 38–40. faith in a personal god j 33 of the visible universe and its ﬁne-tuned character, some point to the inner religious life of the heart as underpinning their faith. Experiences of God’s closeness and even a sense of mystical union with God serve to justify and illuminate belief in an all-loving and ever present divine Being.
Every answer prompts a new question. Human beings 2 Robert Coles, in The Spiritual Life of Children (Boston: Houghton Mifﬂin, 1990), shows how, with surprising feeling and subtlety, children ponder the great questions about the human predicament: our origin, our nature, and our ﬁnal destiny. On Coles’s work, see G. O’Collins, Jesus our Redeemer: A Christian Approach to Salvation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 77–80. 3 See V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy, trans.
When we add further divine attributes and recognize God as being all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-perfect, we may well ask ourselves: what kind of action concepts apply to such an agent? How many of our notions about personal, human actions and their 9 For some of the issues connected with these claims, see W. L. ), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology, 145–66; and H. Hudson, ‘Omnipresence’, ibid. 199–216. faith in a personal god j 25 mechanism can we transfer to God? When, for example, we do something in the external world (as opposed to doing something in our minds), bodily movements come into play.
A State of Mixture: Christians, Zoroastrians, and Iranian Political Culture in Late Antiquity (Transformation of the Classical Heritage, Volume 56) by Richard E. Payne